• Orçun Ayata

What is a compressor in audio and music?



Compressors can be used to change the dynamics of a sound source by decreasing the amplitude of loud levels and increasing the amplitude of quiet volumes.


But, first and foremost, why do we require it? Because it contributes to a more steady-sounding recording. You may want that while mixing a pop or rock album, but you may want to use something other than a compressor when mixing a classical or jazz record since certain dynamics are required.


Compressors are used in live sound, mixing, and mastering to guarantee that the relative levels of all elements in a mix are properly balanced.


What is a compressor in audio and music?

A compressor is a volume control device that lowers the dynamic range between loud and quiet sounds.


It operates by making soft sounds louder and louder sounds quieter. This allows you to hear quieter portions more clearly, so you can always hear the notes you're playing on your guitar in a complicated arrangement.


What does the compressor do in music?

The primary function of a compressor is to minimize the dynamic range of a track, group, or entire mix. You may, however, utilize them to give character to your instruments and mixes. Analog compressor devices are frequently used by recording, mixing, and mastering professionals to give character to their tunes. Because there are several emulations of these analog compressors available nowadays, users also employ the plugin versions to add color to their recordings.



What are the components of a compressor?

Threshold

A threshold is a point at which the compressor begins to lower the signal level. The threshold can be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application. A lower threshold, for example, will result in a greater signal reduction, whilst a higher threshold will allow more of the signal to pass through unchanged.


Ratio

When the signal crosses the threshold, the ratio control determines how much compression is applied to it. A 2:1 compression ratio indicates that for every 1 dB above the threshold, only 2 dB is compressed. A 4:1 compression ratio indicates that for every 1 dB above the threshold, 4 dB is compressed, and so on.



Attack time

The attack time is the length of time it takes for a compressor to respond to abrupt volume fluctuations.


The slower the attack time, the more clearly you'll hear your instrument's "click." This can be the sound of a guitar plucking or the beater sound of a kick drum.


The faster the attack time, the flatter the sound will be since the "transients" of an instrument will be lost. If you want to reduce the sound of a guitar's pick, utilize quicker attack times. Or use slower attack times to exaggerate those picking sounds.


Release time

The release time, together with the attack time, determines how long it takes your compressor to return to its uncompressed state after moving away from the threshold. The slower the return, the longer the release time, and vice versa.


Slower release times produce smoother compression, whereas faster release times produce more aggressive compression.


The knee

Knee settings are another feature included in certain compressors but not all of them. The knee controls how quickly the compressor reacts to noises that exceed the threshold level. When the audio surpasses the threshold you set, it will take longer for the audio to progressively approach the point where it should compress.


It is not precisely the attack setting since, in theory, the compressor waits until it reaches the attack time you specified before beginning to compress. However, the knee setting determines how smooth the climb will be once the attack timer expires. It might be instant if you set it to hard, or more gradual if you set it to slow.


In general, harsh knee settings produce punchier sounds, whereas soft knee settings provide a smoother compression effect.


Make-up gain

Make-up Gain is simply the amount of gain applied to restore a signal to its ideal level. Most compressors feature a meter that displays the amount of compression that is taking place in real-time; this meter allows you to observe what your compressor is doing at any given time. As a result, you may set your make-up gain as high as you like to compress the audio signal. But there are no restrictions, so you may leave it or double it according to your preferences and requirements.


The limiter

Limiters are types of compressors. It functions similarly to compressors, but there are certain critical distinctions that set it apart. Given your knowledge of ratio settings, you may conceive of limiters as compressors with limitless ratio settings. In principle, using a limiter prevents you from exceeding the threshold at all.


Because of this characteristic, it is frequently utilized in mastering to achieve a more consistent sound.


Conclusion

Compressors may be used in music to maximize volume levels or to vary the character by adjusting the attack time, release time, or knee. You may either limit an instrument's dynamic range or boost its punchiness. You may also add color to your instruments or song by using analog or analog-modeled compressor plugins.


It's usually best to have a purpose in mind before using a compressor, so you don't end up with a squished track. It will always be difficult to hear the distinctions at first, and it will take time to do so. However, with enough practice, you will learn when and how to utilize a compressor.


If you want a professional to do the whole production, mixing, and mastering of your song, please contact me to set up a meeting.